A transit of the Arctic Ocean is the movement of a marine vessel across the Arctic waters
between the Atlantic and Pacific sides. Nearly every transit navigates along either the
Northeast Passage or the Northwest Passage, which includes the Northern Sea Route along
the Russian Arctic coast.
However, the determination of which voyages are full or partial transits depends on
the documenting authority.
- A full transit is often defined as a voyage through the Arctic between the
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, entering one side and exiting the other ocean
corridor. Some sources consider a voyage across a majority of the NWP to be
a full transit.
- A Partial Transit is one that traverses part way through one of the passages,
normally returning to the originating corridor.
- A Destination Transit originates or terminates in an Arctic port and voyaging
to or from ports outside of the region.
- Local Transits represent vessels that travel exclusively within the passage
without exiting to either the Atlantic or Pacific oceans.
Traffic along the Northern Sea Route peeked in 2013,
after the record low ice extent of 2012. Since then, NSR transits have dropped
significantly, possibly due to lower fuel prices making traditional shipping
routes less risky and more profitable. U.S. sanctions against Russia likely affected
the decline as well.
Northwest Passage transits increased from 5 in 2005 to 16 in 2016 with the
receding summer ice extents. Voyages along the NWP are predominately made in
smaller vessels able to navigate in the shallow waters and tight passages. But
increasingly, larger ice capable passenger ships have been making the journey.
For more information about Arctic transits see
For available transits data: