A transit of the Arctic Ocean is the movement of a marine vessel across the Arctic waters
between the Atlantic and Pacific sides. Nearly every transit navigates along either the
Northeast Passage and Northern Sea Route or the Northwest Passage.
However, the determination of which voyages are full or partial transits depends on
the documenting authority.
- A full transit is often defined as a voyage through the Arctic between the
Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, entering one side and exiting the other ocean
corridor. Some sources consider a voyage across a majority of the NWP to be
a full transit.
- A Partial Transit is one that traverses part way through one of the passages,
normally returning to the originating corridor.
- A Destination Transit originates or terminates in an Arctic port and voyaging
to or from ports outside of the region.
- Local Transits represent vessels that travel exclusively within the passage.
Northern Sea Route
Northern Sea Route (NSR) transits are controlled by the
NSR Administration office in Moscow affecting
traffic in the Russian EEZ between the Cape Dezhnev and the Kara Gate and Cape
Zhelaniya (the strait between the Cape and Franz Josef Land). Information regarding
the transits is available from the
NSR Information Office,
for the 2011 – 2015 seasons. NSR transits often originate or terminate within the
Arctic region with locations outside instead of traversing the whole route. Many other
NSR transits are local and represent vessels that travel exclusively within the NSR passage.
The Northeast Passage (NEP) connects the Atlantic and Pacific oceans on the Norway-Russia
side of the Arctic. It includes the Barents Sea region and the NSR. Transit records of the NEP
are compiled by the NSR Information Office.
Transits of the NWP have been recorded by different agencies and researchers with
differing perspectives on full or partial designations. All such transits navigate
through the Canadian Archipelagos. Full transits are documented by
of the Scott Polar Research Institute at the University of Cambridge
in England as passing between the Bering Strait and the Atlantic Ocean
approaches to the Archipelagos. Others, including Canada’s NORDREG, record
voyages through the Archipelagos to the Beaufort Sea as a full transit,
without needing to traverse the Bering Strait.
Traffic along the Northern Sea Route peeked in 2013,
after the record low ice extent of 2012. Since then, NSR transits have dropped
significantly, possibly due to lower fuel prices making traditional shipping
routes less risky and more profitable. U.S. sanctions against Russia likely affected
the decline as well.
Northwest Passage transits increased from 5 in 2005 to 15 in 2015 with the
receding summer ice extents. Voyages along the NWP are predominately made in
smaller vessels able to navigate in the shallow waters and tight passages. But
increasingly, larger ice capable passenger ships have been making the journey.
For available transits data: